Link Grammar Bibliography

Papers by us / Papers by others / Sofware resources

Papers By Us (available in postscript form)

Daniel Sleator and Davy Temperley. 1991. Parsing English with a Link Grammar. Carnegie Mellon University Computer Science technical report CMU-CS-91-196, October 1991. [Postscript, PDF, Abstract]

Daniel Sleator and Davy Temperley. 1993. Parsing English with a Link Grammar. Third International Workshop on Parsing Technologies. (This is a shorter but more up-to-date version of the technical report above. It contains a better introduction to link grammars, and gives a more detailed description of the relationship between link grammar and other formalisms.) [Postscript, PDF, Abstract and Introduction]

John Lafferty, Daniel Sleator, and Davy Temperley. 1992. Grammatical Trigrams: A Probabilistic Model of Link Grammar. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Probabilistic Approaches to Natural Language, October, 1992. (This paper introduces a statistical language model based on link grammars.) [Postscript, PDF, Abstract]

Dennis Grinberg, John Lafferty and Daniel Sleator. 1995. A robust parsing algorithm for link grammars. Carnegie Mellon University Computer Science technical report CMU-CS-95-125, and Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Parsing Technologies, Prague, September, 1995. (This paper describes the modifications of the parsing algorithm used to allow null links.) [Postscript, PDF, Abstract]

Papers By Others

(If you are aware of work not listed here that uses link grammar, please let us know.)

Mehreen Ahmed. 2002. A Note on Phrase Structure Analysis and Design Implication for ICALL. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 15, 4, Oct, 422-433. [Abstract]

Sophie Aubin. 2003. Evaluation comparative de deux analyseurs produisant des relations syntaxiques (Comparative evaluation of two analyzers producing syncactic relations). Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles 2003 . [PDF]

Sophie Aubin, Adeline Nazarenko, and Claire Nedellec. 2006. Adapting a general parser to a sublanguage. Proceedings of the International Conference RANLP'05. [PDF]

Denis Bechet. 2003. K-valued link grammars are learnable from strings. Proccedings of the 8th conference on Formal Grammar (FGVienna), Vienna, Austria, August 2003. [Postscript]

Tom Brehony & Kevin Ryan. 1994. Francophone Stylistic Grammar Checking (FSGC) Using Link Grammars. In Computer Assisted Language Learning, 7, 3, 257-269.

Dan Brien. 2000. Parsing Natural Language with Lingua::Link Parser. In The Perl Journal, issue 19. [View online]

K. Boettger, R. Schwitter, D. Richards, O. Aguilera, and D. Molla. 2001. Reconciling Use Cases via Controlled Language and Graphical Models. INAP-2001, The Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Applications of Prolog, 20-22 October, 2001, University of Tokyo, Japan, 186-195. [Postscript]

C. Chelba, D. Engle, F. Jelinek, V. Jimenez, S. Khudanpur, L. Mangu, H. Printz, E. Ristad, R. Rosenfeld, A. Stolcke, & D. Wu. 1997. Structure and Performance of a Dependency Language Model. Eurospeech 97. [PDF].

T. Chklovksi. 2003. Learner: A System for Acquiring Commonsense Knowledge by Analogy. Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Capture. [Postscript]

Jing Ding, Daniel Berleant, Jun Xu, & Andy W. Fulmer. 2003. Extracting Biochemical Interactions from MEDLINE Using a Link Grammar Parser. 15th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI'03). [Abstract]

Prae Dumrong, Jared Gould, Greg Lee, Logan Nicholson, Kelly Gao, Peter Beling, Matthias Blume, & Jeff Robinson. 2003. The Quantification of Unstructured Information and its Use in Predictive Modeling. Proceedings of the 2003 Systems and Information Engineering Design Symposium. [PDF]

D. Rajesh Duthie & Rajendra Akerkar. 2002. Knowledge Representation in KRIS Using Link Grammar Parser. [PDF]

R. Elliott, J. R. W. Glauert, J. R. Kennaway, and I. Marshall. 2002. The development of language processing support for the ViSiCAST project. Proceedings of the Fourth International ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies, 101-8. [Abstract]

Z. Feng. 1999. Review on Link Grammar. (In Chinese.) Applied Linguistics (Yuyen Wenzi Yunyong) 4, 100-102. [View on web]

E. Fong and D. Wu. 1995. Learning Restricted Probabilistic Link Grammars. IJCAII Workshop on New Approaches to Learning for Natural Language Processing, August, 1995, Montreal, Canada, pp 49-56. [Not available.]

Andrew J. Hunt. 1993. Utilising Prosody to Perform Syntatic Disambiguation. In Proc. Eurospeech 1993, pages 1339-1342. [Not available.]

Andrew J. Hunt. 1994. A Generalized Model for Utilising Prosodic information in Continuous Speech Recognition. In Proc. ICASSP, 1994, pages 169-172, 1994. [Not available.]

Andrew J. Hunt. 1994. Improving Speech Understanding Through Integration of Prosody and Syntax. In Proc. 7th Aust. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, pages 442-449, Armidale, Australia. [Not available.]

Andrew J. Hunt. 1994. A Prosodic Recognition Module Based on Linear Discrimant Analysis. In Proc. Intl. Conf. on Spoken Language Processing, 1994, pages 1119-1122, Yokohama, Japan, 1994. [Not available.]

Andrew J. Hunt. 1995. Syntactic Influence on Prosodic Phrasing in the Framework of the Link Grammar. In Proc. Eurospeech 1995. [Not available.]

Andrew J. Hunt. 1995. Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques to Train Prosody-Syntax Models for Resolving Syntatic Ambiguity. In ATR 1995 Intl. Wrkp. on Computational Modeling of Prosody for Spontaneous Speech Processing, April 12-14, 1995, Kyoto, Japan. [Not available.]

Antoine Jean-Yves, Goulian Jerme, & Villaneau Jeanne. 2003. Quand le TAL robuste s'attaque au langage parle: Analyse incrementale pour la comprehension de la parole spontanee. Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles 2003 . [View on web]

J. Kinoshita. 1998. A Transfer Dictionary for Words and Bigrams. 14th Brazilian Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, SBIA'98, Porto Alegre, Brazil 1998. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 1515. Ed. Flavio M. De Oliveira. pgs. 73-82. [Postscript]

Cody C. T. Kwok, Oren Etzioni, & Daniel S. Weld. 2001. Scaling question answering to the Web. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on World Wide Web, 150-161. [Abstract]

Jianming Li, Lei Zhang and Yong Yu. 2001. Learning to Generate Semantic Annotation for Domain Specific Sentences. Workshop on Knowledge Markup and Semantic Annotation at the 1st International Conference on Knowledge Capture (K-CAP 2001) , October, 2001, Victoria, B.C., Canada. [PDF]

Carol Liu. Towards A Link Grammar for Chinese. Submitted for publication in Computer Processing of Chinese and Oriental Languages - the Journal of the Chinese Language Computer Society. [Not available.]

Harsha V. Madhyastha, N. Balakrishnan, & K. R. Ramakrishnan. 2003. Event Information Extraction Using Link Grammar. 13th International WorkShop on Research Issues in Data Engineering: Multi-lingual Information Management (RIDE'03). [Abstract]

Carl de Marcken. 1996. Lexical Heads, Phrase Structure, and the Induction of Grammar. In 1996 Workshop on Very Large Corpora. [PDF]

Solomon Marcus, Gheorghe Paun, & Carlos Martin-Vide. 1998. Contextual Grammars as Generative Models of Natural Languages. Computational Linguistics, 24/2, 245-274.

Carlos Martin-Vide & Gheorghe Paun. 1998. Structured Contextual Grammars. Grammars, 1/1, 33-55.

Jaroslaw Mierzwa. 2002. (In Polish.) The Formal Model of Computer Decomposition of Natural Language Sentences into Groups of Words for Computer Inference Purposes. Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland), Dissertation, available from UMI, Ann Arbor, MI. Order No. C809051. [Abstract]

Diego Molla and Michael Hess. 2002. Dealing with ambiguities in an answer extraction system. In Proc. of ATALA Workshop on Representation and Treatment of Ambiguity in Natural Language Processing. Paris. [Postscript]

Diego Molla & Ben Hutchinson. 2003. Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Evaluations of Parsing Systems. EACL-03. [Postscript]

D. Molla, R. Schwitter, M. Hess, & R. Fournier. 2002. ExtrAns, an Answer Extraction System. T.A.L., special issue on Information Retrieval oriented Natural Language Processing, pp. 495-522. [Postscript]

Diego Molla, Gerold Schneider, Rolf Schwitter and Michael Hess. 2002. Answer Extraction Using a Dependency Grammar in ExtrAns. In Traitement Automatique de Langues (T.A.L.), Special Issue on Dependency Grammar, pp. 145-178. [Postscript]

Erwan Moreau. 2004. Partial learning using link grammars data. In Proceedings of ICGI 2004. [Abstract]

Yuichi Nakamura & Takeo Kanade. 1997. Semantic analysis for video contents extraction: Spotting by association in news video. Proceedings of the Fifth ACM International Conference on Multimedia, 393-401. [Abstract]

Ted Pedersen & Weidong Chen. 1995. Lexical Acquisition via Constraint Solving. In Working Notes of the AAAI Spring Symposium on Representation and Acquisition of Lexical Knowledge,, pp. 118-122. [Postscript]

Sampo Pyysalo, Filip Ginter, Tapio Pahikkala, Jeppe Koivula, Jorma Boberg, Jouni Jrvinen, & Tapio Salakoski. 2004. Analysis of Link Grammar on Biomedical Dependency Corpus Targeted at Protein-Protein Interactions. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Natural Language Processing in Biomedicine and its Applications. [Abstract]

Fabio Rinaldi, James Dowdall, Michael Hess, Diego Molla and Rolf Schwitter. 2002. Towards Answer Extraction: An application to Technical Domains. ECAI-2002, Lyon, 21-26 July, 2002. In: F. van Harmelen (ed.), ECAI 2002: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IOS Press, Amsterdam. [Postscript]

Fabio Rinaldi, Michael Hess, Diego Molla, Rolf Schwitter, James Dowdall, Gerold Schneider, and Rachel Fournier. 2002. Answer Extraction in Technical Domains. CICLing-2002, Mexico City, 17-23 February, 2002. Available from Springer Verlag: Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 2276., pg. 360-369. [Postscript]

Gerold Schneider. 1998. A Linguistic Comparison Constituency, Dependency, and Link Grammar. Master's Thesis, University of Zurich. [PDF]

Chirag Shah and Pushpak Bhattacharyya. 2003. Improving Document Vectors Representation using Semantic Links and Attributes. International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON), Mysore, India, December 2003. [PDF]

Richard Sutcliffe, Tom Brehony, and Annette McElligott. 1995. The grammatical analysis of technical texts using a link parser. In PACLING-II, April 1995. [Full text available from]

Richard Sutcliffe and Annette McElligott. 1995. Using the Link Parser of Sleator and Temperley to Analyse a Software Manual Corpus. In R. F. E. Sutcliffe, H.-D. Koch, & A. McElligott (Eds.) Industrial Parsing of Software Manuals (pp. 89-102). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Rodopi. [Postscript]

P. Szolovits. 2003. Adding a Medical Lexicon to an English Parser. Proc. AMIA 2003 Annual Symposium. [PDF]

Peter Venable. 2001. Lynx: Building a Statistical Parser from a Rule-Based Parser. In Proceedings of the NAACL. [Postscript]

Peter Venable. 2004. Modeling Syntax for Parsing and Translation. PhD Thesis, Carnegie-Mellon University. [Summary]

Ying-Hong Wang & Chih-Hao Lin. 2004. A multimedia database supports English distance learning. Information Sciences--Informatics and Computer Science, 158, 189-208. [Abstract]

Lei Zhang and Yong Yu. 2001. Learning to Generate CGs from Domain Specific Sentences. In The Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, LNAI 2120, July 30-August 3, 2001, Stanford, CA, USA. [Abstract] [Full text (PDF)]

Software Resources Using the Link Grammar Parser
(We take no responsibility for these materials)

Java Native Code Interface for the Link Grammar API, by Chris Jordan. [Download] [Documentation]

Perl module for the link grammar parser, by Dan Brian. [Download] [Documentation]

A version of the parser for the C#.NET platform, by Thanh Bui. [Download]

A lexical expansion of the Link Grammar Parser using WordNet, by Elliot Turner. [Download]

A link grammar for Russian, by Sergey Protasov. [Try online]

An English-to-Turkish translator, by Aykutlu Dane. [Download here]

AbiWord, the open-source word processor, now uses Link Grammar for grammar-checking (as of version 2.4). [AbiWord Website]

Link Grammar front page
Daniel Sleator
Last modified: Wed Sep 8 13:49:29 EDT 2004