*** Guide-to-Links ***
K
K connects certain verbs with particles like "in", "out", "up",
and the like.

                  +-K-+
                  |   |
	The man came up	

	*The man arrived up

Particles that can be used in this way have "K-" disjoined
with everything else. (Most are also prepositions; a few, like
"away", are not.)

We distinguish between verbs that can take particles and
those that do not, but among particle-taking verbs, we do
not distinguish between specific verb-particle pairs: we
allow "We sorted them out/*up", "We put them in/*over".

Verbs that take particles may be transitive ("pick"),
intransitive ("come"), or trans/intrans ("move"). With
transitive verbs, the particle may either precede or
follow the direct object: "We picked the dog up"; "We
picked up the dog". This yields the following expression.

	pick: (S- or ....) & ((K+ & O+) or ((O+ or B-) & {K+}));
				 
				^ particle        ^ particle
			      precedes object     follows object

The particle is almost always optional. (There are a few
exceptions, like "put", which requires either a particle or a
prepositional phrase: "We put it in", "*We put it".) However:
if we made the particle optional in both the "pre-object" case
and the "post-object case", then "We picked the dog" would
receive two parses. So it must be obligatory in one case,
optional in the other.

A further complication: with transitive verbs, the particle
may always follow the object, but it may precede it only if
the object is a full noun-phrase, not a pronoun: "We picked it
up," "*We picked up it". We enforce this using
post-processing.  In the expression for transitive verbs, the
O+ in the "particle-precedes-object" case is subscripted
"O*n+". Pronouns are then subscripted "Ox-". "Oxn" links
are then prohibited in post-processing.

Grammar Documentation Page.