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E
E is used for verb-modifying adverbs which precede the verb:

	       +---E---+
	       |       |
	he apparently is not coming

In this entry we provide a general discussion of adverbs.

     Contents
     1. Types of adverb
     2. Links used with manner/clausal/time adverbs
     3. Manner adverbs
     4. Clausal adverbs
     5. Time adverbs
     6. Other kinds of adverbs
     7. High-cost uses of adverbs
     8. Eq

Types of adverb 
There are a number of types of adverb. Some kinds of adverb
are quite specific in the way they may be used: adjective-
modifiers ("EA"), adverb-modifiers ("EE"),
comparative-modifiers ("EC"), number-modifiers ("EN"),
modifiers of "as" ("EZ"), and modifiers of prepositional
phrases ("MVl"). These kinds of adverbs are highly constrained
in their use; thus we assign a specific link-type to
each. (For discussion, see "EA"; see "EC"; see "EE"; see "EN";
see "EZ"; see "MVl".)

Other adverbs are less constrained in the way they can be used:
adverbs of manner, clausal adverbs, and time adverbs.  Adverbs
of manner refer specifically to the manner in which an action
is done: "He laughed loudly", "She ran quickly". Clausal
adverbs refer in some way to the clause as a whole: "Jane is
apparently coming", "Jane is also coming", "Jane is actually
coming". Time adverbs give information about the time of the
action: "Jane is soon coming".  Each of these types of adverbs
has a variety of syntactic usages; they also share some usages,
and therefore have some connectors in common. However, the
usage of each category is slightly different; there is also some
variance within the categories.

A few general remarks can be made about adverbs. They are
almost always optional: no word has an obligatory "E-" or
"EA-" connector, for example. The adverb itself generally only
makes one connection, to the word it is modifying. (Some
adverbs may be modified by other adverbs, using EE-; this is
also used in adverbial questions.) Many adverbs have several
disjoined connectors, allowing them to modify several
different kinds of words. On the words being modified, the
adverb connection is usually to the left (the exception is
verbs modified by adverbs to the right, using MVa or EB), and
it must usually be made closer than any other connection; thus
the adverb connector ("E-", "EA-", or whatever) is at the far
left of the expression.

Links used with manner/clausal/time adverbs
Several kinds of links are used with manner/clausal/time
adverbs. E connects adverbs to following verbs. Thus every
verb has an optional "@E-", conjoined with the rest of its
expression. Since the adverb connection must be made closer than
any other left-pointing connection--to a subject or auxiliary--
the @E- on verbs is at the far left of the expression:

      jumped: {@E-} & (S- or PP-) & ...;

MVa connects adverbs to preceding verbs or adjectives (see
"MV: Words taking MV-"). (In a series of verbs, "He will want
to have tried to do it", only the last one will have an @MV+
available for use.) EB connects adverbs to forms of "be", when
the "be" word is connecting to an object or prepositional
phrase (see "EB"). And CO connects adverbs to a following
subject-noun-phrase (see "CO").

(A somewhat fuzzy distinction is assumed here between adverbs
and prepositions. Generally prepositions take objects, can
modify nouns, and can be complements of "be", whereas adverbs
differ in all three respects. However, there is some gray area
between the two. See "MV: Words taking MV-" for more discussion.)

Manner adverbs 
Manner adverbs may occur after the verb: "He ran quickly", "She
laughed loudly". They may also occur at the beginning of the
sentence: "Quickly he ran", "Loudly, she laughed". Or, they
may occur before the verb (or before any of the verbs, if
there are several): "She had quickly opened the door"; "She
quickly had opened the door". They may not usually occur after
forms of "be": "*She was loudly in the kitchen". Therefore,
most manner adverbs carry "MVa- or E+ or CO+". However, a few
manner adverbs do not take E+ or CO+, like "properly" and
"outright": "*You should properly do it", "*Properly you
should do it".

Clausal adverbs
Clausal adverbs may almost always occur before the verb:
"He almost/probably/fortunately closed the door". They can
almost never be used following the main verb: "*He closed the
door almost/probably/fortunately". They can be used before the
subject in some cases, not in others: "Probably/fortunately/
apparently he closed the door", "*Barely/simply/ever/almost
he closed the door". A few can only occur before the subject:
"Maybe he is coming", "*He is maybe coming", "*He is coming maybe".
Generally they can occur after forms of "be": "They are
apparently/probably/fortunately good programmers."
In short, the norm for clausal adverbs is "E+ or CO+ or
EB+", but there are many exceptions. Note that there are also a
few adverbs which can be used either as clausal or manner
adverbs, like "clearly" and "sadly". These adverbs thus take
"MVa- or E+ or CO+ or EB+", and when used with E+ or CO+, they
are ambiguous: "Clearly, he read the speech".

(Many clausal adverbs can follow the verb with commas: thus
they take "E+ or CO+ or EB+ or (Xd- & Xc+ & MVa-)". See "MV:
Words taking MV-".)

A special category of clausal adverbs is words like "chemically",
and "financially". These would appear to be clausal adverbs in
that they modify the entire clause rather than the verb, and
like clausal adverbs, they can occur before the clause before
the verb, or after forms of "be" (exs. 1, 2 and 3 below).
However, unlike most clausal adverbs, they may follow
the main verb (ex. 4), and they may also modify adjectives 
(ex. 5). Thus such adverbs take "MVa- or E+ or CO+ or EA+
or EB+".

	1. Biochemically, the experiment was well-designed
	2. We biochemically altered the materials
	3. It was biochemically a good experiment
	4. The experiment was well-designed biochemically
	5. We need to get some biochemically valid results

Time adverbs
Many time adverbs (sometimes, often, recently, soon) can be
used either after the verb, before the verb, after "be", or
before the subject: "Sometimes, we have chicken", "We
sometimes have chicken", "We have chicken sometimes", "We are
sometimes in the garden". Such adverbs thus take "MVa- or E+
or CO+ or EB+".  However, a few ("always", "never", "rarely")
can only take E+ or EB- ("*Always he is late", "*He is late
always").

Other kinds of adverbs 
Other more specialized uses of adverbs are explained
elsewhere: adverbs modifying adjectives and other adverbs (see
"EA"; see "EE"), those modifying number expressions (see
"EN"), those modifying comparatives (see "EC"), those
modifying "as" (see "EZ"), and those modifying prepositional
phrases (see "MVl"). The fact that a number of words belong to
different combinations of these categories explains the large
number of adverb categories in the dictionary.  A further
complication is that some adverbs can be modified by adverbial
adverbs like "very"; others cannot: "He did it very quickly",
"*He did it very sometimes". Those that can have "{EE-}"
conjoined with their other connectors; such adverbs can also
be part of adverbial questions ("How quickly did you run"),
and therefore must also take Ca+ and Qe+.  See "EE"; see "Ca";
see "Qe".

High-cost Uses of Adverbs 
Some uses of adverbs are more rare, and are therefore given a
cost of 2. It was mentioned that certain adjectives, like
"very", can modify adjectives: "He is very skillful". However,
one also sometimes sees ordinary manner adverbs modifying
adjectives:

	The cellist's delicately melodic style contrasted
	with the fiercely abrasive tone of the violin and
	the pianist's violently percussive chords.

To allow this, we give manner adverbs high-cost "EA+"
connectors. Note that adjectives only have one (non-multiple)
"EA-" connector; therefore, if an adjective takes an adverb in
this way, it cannot also take an ordinary "intensifying"
adverb like "very".  This seems correct: "*The delicately very
melodic tone of the cello was beautiful."

Adjectives may also sometimes be modified by clausal adverbs
and time adverbs.

	1. He was often friendly
	2. The often underpaid administrators used to resent
	the invariably rude students and the understandably
	impatient professors.

Recall that clausal adverbs take "EB+" connectors, and forms
of "be" have "EB+" connectors; thus in a sentence like 1
above, "EB" is used (see "EB"). In ex. 2, however, no EB+
connector is available. Thus we must allow the adverb to
connect directly to the adjective. We therefore give
adjectives "@E-" connectors, conjoined only with their A+
connectors, not with their Pa-. Since this usage is fairly
rare, we again give it a cost of 2. This yields the following:

rude: {EA-} & (({[[@Ec-]]} & A+) or (Pa- & <complement>);

This requires several further comments. First, why is it
that clausal/time adverbs attach to adjectives with "E+",
and manner adverbs attach with "EA"? For one thing, as
mentioned above, manner adverbs seem to take the place of
ordinary adjectival adverbs like "very" and "quite", whereas
clausal and time adverbs do not:

	The often very underpaid administrators used to resent
	the invariably quite rude students and the understandably
	rather impatient professors.

Furthermore, when time/clausal adverbs are used as well as
an adjectival adverb (or a manner adverb), the time/clausal
adverb must come first:

	The cellist's sometimes very melodic tone contrasted with
	the largely rather percussive chords of the piano

	*The cellist's very sometimes melodic tone contrasted with
	the rather largely percussive chords of the piano

Both of these distinctions are enforced by the solution 
described above. Finally, a problem arises here: manner
adverbs also take E+ connectors, so given the above expression
for adjectives, a sentence like "The fiercely percussive
piano chords" will receive two parses. To prevent this, we
give manner adverbs "Em+", and we give adjectives "Ec-",
as shown.

Eq is used with paraphrasing verbs, inserted between the
subject and verb of the main clause: "The play, she said, was
excellent." See "CP". Eqi is used for such verbs in cases
where "filler-it" is required as the subject: see "SF:
filler-it".

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