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C
C connects subordinating conjunctions and certain verbs and
adjectives with subjects of clauses.  It is therefore used
only in embedded and subordinate clauses, not main clauses.

            +---C--+                          +-C-+
            |      |                          |   |
	I told him I was angry      Call me when you are ready

Every noun, nominative pronoun, and every other potential
subject has a "C-" conjoined with its "S+" connector (but not
its O-, J-, etc.). The C- is directly disjoined with a Wd-,
which is used in main clauses, and R-, used in certain
relative clauses:

	dog: ({C- or Wd- or R-} & S+) or O- or J-...

When a dependent clause is begun, the subject usually makes a
C connection to the left. There are two exceptions.  When an
object-type relative clause occurs with an omitted relative
pronoun ("The man you met is here"), the subject of the
relative clause makes an R- connection, not a C- connection.
The reason for this concerns the use of "CO": see "CO".
Secondly, in indirect object-type questions, the subject of
the indirect-question clause makes no left connection at
all. The "(C- or Wd- or R-)" complex on nouns must therefore
be optional.

Different kinds of C+ 
Ce is used for verbs that take clausal complements, also known
as "embedded clauses": "tell", "assume", "think", etc.. Such
verbs therefore have "Ce+" disjoined with their other
complement connectors (TH+, TO+, O+, etc.). "TH+" connects to
the word "that" which then connects to an embedded clause. All
verbs that carry "Ce+" also carry "TH+": "I assumed we would
go", "I assumed that we would go". The reverse is not true,
however: "I asserted/whispered/retorted that we should go";
"*I asserted/whispered/retorted we should go".

Many adjectives which take embedded clauses as complements
also carry Ce+. Again, some require "that", and therefore
carry TH+, but some do not: "I am glad you are here". A very
few nouns also take Ce+, like "day" and "way": "I still
remember the day I saw him", "I like the way you do
that". Most nouns taking clauses require "that", however.

Cs is used in several kinds of subordinate clauses. It is used
with certain conjunctions, like "when" and "after": "The man I
saw after I left your party is here." (Some other conjunctions
do not take Cs; see "W".) Usually conjunctions that take Cs+
can either precede or follow the clause they modify ("When I
saw you, I left"; "I left when I saw you". They thus take "Cs+
& (MVs- or CO+)".

In many cases, such conjunctions may also take noun-phrases or
participles as objects: "The man I saw ( after lunch / after
running ) is here"; thus they have "Cs+ or J+ or Mv+ or Mg+",
as appropriate. Some conjunctions that take nouns as objects
can modify nouns also: "The party after the lecture was
good". In this sense, they are essentially acting as
prepositions, and take Mp-. This raises the question of
whether they can take Mp- and Cs+ in conjunction: "?The party
after Fred graduated was excellent".  We allow this, but the
expressions could easily be rewritten to prevent it.

Cs is also used for certain nouns that take clausal
complements, like "way" and "time": "I remember the time I
went to London". Such nouns therefore have "Cs+ or @M+....",
conjoined with their main "S+ or O+..." complex. Cs is also
used in where/when/how indirect questions: "I wonder where
they will live".  Such question words therefore have "QI- &
Cs+". (In direct questions of this kind, s-v inversion must
take place; therefore no C connection is made. See "W:
Questions".)

Reasons for the C+ distinctions
The reason for making the distinction between Ce and Cs
relates to "bounded domains". In relative clauses and
questions (direct and indirect), a transitive verb can make a
B connection to a preceding noun-phrase; however, there are
constraints on how this may be done.  A B link may be made to
a word within an embedded clause ("I wonder who Joe thinks
Bill hit"), but not to a word within a subordinate clause ("*I
wonder who Joe cried when Bill hit."), nor to a word within a
relative clause or indirect question. To enforce this, Ce
connectors (found in embedded clauses) start 'e' domains, Cs
connectors (found in conjunction-linked subordinate clauses,
and some indirect questions) start 's' domains; we then
dictate that B links can extend out of 'e' domains, but not
's' domains. See "B: B links involving dependent clauses" for
further explanation.

A "B" link may not be made to a word within a subordinate
clause, from outside that clause. However, it is perfectly fine to
have a conjunction-connected subordinate clause within a relative
clause, as long as the B link is not inside it:

	*The man I cried when John hit is here
	The man I hit when John cried is here

Other kinds of C links
"Ca" is used in indirect adverbial questions:
                   
             +-QI-+--EEh-+--Ca-+
             |    |      |     |
	I wonder how quickly Jane ran

Adverbs that can be used in this way have "EEh- & (Ca+ or
Qe+ or MVa-...)". (Qe is used in direct adverbial questions.)
Ca can only be used in indirect questions. This is enforced
because if the sentence must connect to the wall, and can only
do so through "how". ("How" could make a direct "W" connection	
to the wall, but this would trigger post-processing constraints
which would prevent "Ca" from being used.) Like Cs connectors 
(used in other indirect questions), Ca starts an 's' domain,
thus putting the indirect question clause in its own group.

"Cc" is used with comparatives. See "MV: Comparatives V".

"Ci" is used on verbs or adjectives taking subordinate clauses
in cases where "filler-it" is required as the subject. See
"SF: filler-it".  In other respects, Ci is similar to Ce, and
starts an unbounded "e" domain.

"Cr" is used only in one rather obscure construction.  See "B:
Noun-Modifying Prepositional-Object Relative Clauses".

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